2. promote technical assistance or investment projects in LDCs or their transit countries in order to improve their connectivity (transport, ICT, etc.). During the period, there were more than 150 projects and $15 billion in support (mainly IDA). The share of “Almaty” projects has tripled since 2003. Half of this aid went to Africa and 38% to Europe and Central Asia. In addition, with the trust facility set up in 2010, the WBG aimed to reform trade and traffic facilitation, in particular corridors. In other areas, progress is slower. This is the case for the implementation of regional cooperation programmes aimed at facilitating the transit of goods or reforming the service sector, such as road transport. LLDCs participate in many bilateral, regional and even multilateral agreements. However, many transit agreements are often drafted smoothly and do not always define how governments can implement and manage them. There are also some overlaps and conflicts.

Some agreements, such as bilateral agreements, tend to be protectionist and do not promote the development of quality services. There is no doubt that APoA has become aware of the problems faced by landlocked countries and, in particular, of the role of politics in landlocked countries, but also transit countries, which has contributed to progress. One of the ways to reduce time at the border has been the creation of a Central Border Centre (OSBP) combining the interventions of the border management authorities of the two countries. In Malaba, on Kenya`s western border with Uganda, for example, container truckers have experienced a significant reduction in time at the border (from almost 2 days to less than 8-10 hours). In order to continue to control the high costs of transport and trade, it is recommended that landlocked countries consider a number of measures, including, but not limited to, better trade facilitation, promotion of regional transport, trade and ICT connectivity, improvement of cross-border logistics and ensuring coherent investments along transport corridors. In many regions, including mining (Eurasia), high commodity prices have been associated with declining poverty rates in commodity-rich LLDCs. Remember this: about 80% of the population in Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan lived on less than $5 a day in 2000; By 2010, this figure had fallen to less than 50%. However, success in addressing the source of trade costs through the implementation of appropriate policies has been mixed and, as was recognized in Vienna, perseverance and a shift in concentration are essential. Most landlocked developing countries (LLDCs) face specific geographical constraints. They remain on the periphery of the main markets.

They have a lower per capita income than their transit neighbors and generally depend on the markets, infrastructure, and institutions of their transit neighbors. . . .